Excerpted from the Austria Career Guide
Generally, foreigners require visas to visit and stay in Austria. The applicant’s nationality/citizenship and the duration of the trip determine whether or not one must apply for a visa. An entry permit (visa) or residence permit is generally required for all extended stays and for individuals seeking employment or planning to study in Austria.
General Visa Applications Process and Requirements
Applicants must submit visa applications, together with all necessary documents, in person at the Austrian mission responsible for their place of residence. In order to avoid time-consuming requests for additional information or documentation, applicants should consult the website of the respective mission well in advance of their departure date to find out about the visa procedure and the documentation that must be submitted.
Foreign students with the citizenship of a country that requires a visa to enter Austria must obtain a student visa in order to study in the educational institute. Student visas are issued to foreign students who are already accepted at a certified educational establishment in Austria.
If the foreign national intends to take up employment in Austria, he/she must have a separate work permit. A work permit is permission given by the labor authorities for a company to employ a foreign worker. It does not allow a foreign national to travel to or reside in Austria.
Entry Visas and Residence Permits
An entry permit (visa) is issued to a foreign national who plans to go to Austria on a temporary basis (US and European Union citizens do not need an entry permit to stay in Austria). The stay may not exceed six months, and the applicant must not intend to take up any employment in Austria.
Austrian Foreign Ministry (in English)
All application forms can be found at the centralized Austrian website
This is just a short sample of what you’ll find in over 100 pages of information in the Austria Guide.