Excerpted from the Australia Career Guide
Cover Letter Guidelines
When applying for a job, it is vital to include a cover letter that deals directly with the job being sought. If printed, the cover letter should be loosely attached to the front page of the résumé/CV if sent via post (not stapled, but perhaps with a paperclip), or attached to an email, if requested, when being sent electronically (usually in MS Word or Adobe Acrobat PDF format). Many online application forms provide space for the cover letter to be copied and pasted.
Résumé / CV Guidelines
Jobseekers in Australia should be aware that trends in writing résumés and cover letters change frequently, and it is important that a local Australian-style résumé is used, which complies with current guidance. While in more recent times in Australia a résumé has become the most frequently requested choice of application document, many people still refer to it as a CV, or curriculum vitae. The terms are used interchangeably, and reference the type of application document described here. The most important thing to know is that if the job advertisement indicates particular information is required on the résumé by the employer, you should comply with these requests.
You'll find more advice and cover letter and resume samples in the complete Australia Guide.