Excerpted from the Canada Career Guide
Generally, a foreigner requires a visa to visit and stay in Canada. Canada’s immigration control rules enable a wide variety of visitors to enter Canada for either short or long visits, academic study or employment.
Canada’s immigration policy permits citizens of certain countries to travel to Canada without a visa when they meet certain requirements.
General Visa Applications Process and Requirements
The Canadian embassy or consulate in the applicant's home country or place of permanent legal residence, the Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC), and the Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) are the agencies involved in the visa and permit process. Generally, to apply for a visa, the applicant should schedule an appointment with the Canadian embassy or consulate in the applicant’s home country or country of residence.
To study in Canada, foreign nationals must be accepted by a school, college, university or other educational institution in Canada, and in most cases and must obtain study permits and Temporary Resident Visas. Basically, the Temporary Resident Visa covers all visitors, including students.
If the applicant is a foreign national of a country that requires a visa to visit Canada, he/she must apply for a Temporary Resident Visa. There is no separate application for business visitors.
In February 2015, Canada made a significant and fundamental change to processing of work permits under the International Mobility Program (IMP) including NAFTA professionals and intra-company transfers. Applications under the IMP no longer require a Labor Market Impact Assessment or advertising to support a work permit application.
Studying in Canada: Work Permits for Students
Application to Work in Canada: Work Permits
This is just a short sample of what you’ll find in over 100 pages of information in the complete Canada Guide.