Excerpted from the Norway Career Guide
Norway is a member of the Schengen Convention whose purpose is to eliminate controls at common borders and promote free movement of people within the Schengen area. The countries covered under the Schengen Agreement include Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
The Schengen Convention facilitates the free movement of persons in the territory of the EU. Therefore, border checks, for example, have been abolished at internal borders of the EU area. All the old EU member states, apart from Great Britain and Ireland, have access to the Schengen Convention. Norway, Iceland and Switzerland are not member states of the EU, but they have made an associate agreement, on the basis of which it is possible to travel to these countries under the same conditions as when traveling to other EU countries.
Visa for skilled workers (Entry Visa)
Skilled workers who wish to come to Norway before they have been granted residence permits can apply for entry visas. Those eligible for such a visa are skilled workers and those who have received a concrete offer of employment from an employer in Norway. The entry visa does not entitle someone to work in Norway, but it does entitle them to stay in Norway while waiting for an application for a residence permit to be processed.
Student Visa (Permit)
All foreign student applicants must fulfill the same basic entrance requirements as Norwegian students. These requirements vary depending on the country in which the applicant has completed his or her primary and secondary education. Applicants must normally have completed their upper secondary education. In addition, there are specific entry requirements for programs in certain subjects. In some cases, non-formal competence or occupational experience may be included as a qualification for entry into a study program. Students who apply for graduate degree studies must satisfy requirements regarding previous study at the university level.
Work Permits (Business Visas)
Work permits allow foreign employees to reside in Norway. A work permit can be valid for one, two or three years, but no longer than the duration of an employment contract. Foreign nationals must apply for work and/or residence permits if they plan to work in Norway. If a visitor obtains a work or residence permit, he/she does not need to apply for a separate visa. Norway issues many types of work permits, and most types are highly specialized.
Most foreign workers need permits to work in Norway. The rules and guidelines that apply to nationals vary depending on the country as well as on the type of work permit required. Please note the provisions apply to applicants from countries outside the EU/EEA/EFTA, and to applicants from EU/EEA/EFTA countries wishing to apply for a permit not under the EU/EEA rules.
This is just a short sample of what you’ll find in over 100 pages of information in the complete Norway Guide.